关于英语文章的文摘

时间:2022-1-14 作者:洪恩幼儿英语

大家都知道,英语作文在英语考试里面是至关重要的,小编今天给大家整理了英语的文摘,同学们快点来学习一下,这样就可以提高一下我们的英语水平了哦,有需要的同学们可以收藏起来哦,大家快点行动起来吧

天花的历史

The History Of Smallpox

天花的历史

In Shakespeare’s day, wishing a pox on someone was a terrible curse. Ten percent of the population in 17th century London died gruesomely of smallpox, a virus spread easily by airborne particles or contaminated clothing. Infection began with fever, aches, sneezing, and nausea. Soon a rash of red dots appeared, often covering the skin with dripping scabs. Though some recovered, people could become blind, deaf, or severely scarred from smallpox.

在莎士比亚时代,诅咒某人得天花是非常恶毒的。在17世纪的伦敦,有百分之十的人死于天花这种恐怖的疾病,这是一种可以通过空气和被污染的衣服传播的病 毒。患者被感染后的前驱症状是发烧、疼痛、打喷嚏和恶心。随后很快出现红色斑丘疹,而后通常会发展成皮肤上的滴痂。尽管有些人病愈了,但是他们会因此失去 听觉、双目失明或者留下很深的疤痕。

None of the physicians’ attempts to treat smallpox with sheep manure or a golden needle helped at all. But European peasants and traditional healers in Africa and Asia had discovered that exposure to a very small dose of the virus offered some protection.

当时的内科医生尝试用羊粪或金针帮助治疗天花,但是毫无作用。但是欧洲的农民和非洲及亚洲的传统医师发现,感染极少量的天花病毒会带给人体一定的免疫作用。

Traditional healers inoculated scratches in the skin with a small amount of pus infected with smallpox. About one in 200 people died from this procedure, but most became mildly sick, recovering in a few days. In the process, they gained immunity to the disease.

传统医师通过给正常人注射天花患者的少量脓液来进行预防接种。这种治疗方法的死亡率是两百分之一,但是大多数人症状轻微,会在几天内恢复。在这个过程中,他们获得了对天花病毒的免疫力。

Because smallpox inoculation exposed people to such a tiny dose of the virus, it caused far fewer deaths than the natural spread of the disease. Still, London physicians were skeptical of anything peasants or traditional healers did. Not until fashionable Lady Mary Wortley Montagu returned from Turkey did it catch on with the upper classes.

因为接种天花疫苗时使用的病毒剂量是非常微小的,它所导致的死亡和天花的自然传播相比是微不足道的。不过,伦敦医生对农民和传统医师的这种治疗方法仍旧持怀疑态度。直到玛丽•沃尔特利•孟塔古从土耳其回国后,这种治疗方法才在上流社会中流行起来。

Having observed Turkish healers, Lady Mary had her son inoculated in London and published a pamphlet explaining the procedure. Soon, even physicians saw that inoculation gave people a better chance of contracting a mild case of smallpox, preventing many deaths.

通过观察土耳其医师的治疗方法,玛丽夫人让她的儿子接受了预防接种,并且在伦敦出版了一个小册子来解释这种治疗过程。很快,甚至是那些内科医生也注意到这种接种方法只会让人们出现轻微的天花症状,它拯救了很多人的性命。

我们为什么要刷牙?

Why Do We Need To Brush Our Teeth?

我们为什么要刷牙?

Humans may be no less a part of the animal kingdom than lions, tigers and bears, but certain things set us apart. For instance, although like our mammalian cousins we use teeth to bite and chew food, we’re the only animals that brush after every meal.

或许人类的动物属性一点也不比狮子、老虎和熊少,但某些特征却将我们与它们区别开来。举例来说,虽然我们与其他哺乳动物一样用牙齿撕咬和咀嚼食物,但我们是唯一餐后刷牙的动物。

Brushing

刷牙

And as four out of five dentists have reminded us on countless television commercials, using one or another variety of toothpaste is crucial for keeping our teeth healthy.

正如五个牙医中会有四个在数不胜数的电视商业广告中一直提醒我们的那样,使用不同种类的牙膏对保持牙齿健康至关重要。

Like that fifth dentist who never seemed to know what was going on, you might have wondered what toothpaste actually is, and how it helps ward off tooth decay.

像永不情知的的第五个牙医一样,你可能会疑惑,牙膏到底是什么,它又如何帮助我们避免龋齿。

What Is In Toothpaste?

牙膏里有什么?

Toothpaste consists of several ingredients, some of which you’d never think to put in your mouth. For example, almost all toothpaste contains detergent, or soap. Getting your mouth washed out with soap is supposed to be punishment, so what is it doing in toothpaste?

牙膏含有多种成分,有一些你可能从未想过要把它们放进嘴里。比方说,几乎所有的牙膏都含有清洁剂或肥皂。直接用肥皂清洁嘴巴是一种惩罚,那么牙膏中含有的肥皂是如何清洁牙齿的呢?

Although it has a slight antibacterial effect, it’s there mainly to make foam, which serves little purpose other than to provide a visual sign to the brusher that the toothpaste is hard at work fighting cavities.

尽管肥皂有轻微的抗菌作用,但它主要是制造泡沫,这些泡沫除了向刷牙的人传递牙膏能有效抗击龋齿的视觉信号外毫无作用。

Ingredients

成分

Of course some ingredients play a more active role, the most famous of which is fluoride, a mineral compound derived from the element fluorine. Fluoride protects teeth in two ways: it kills acid-producing bacteria which are mainly responsible for tooth decay, and it strengthens and repairs tooth enamel that has been softened by the acid.

当然牙膏里有一些成分在发挥着更为积极的作用,当其中最广为人知的还是氟化物,这是一种从氟元素中提取出来的无机化合物。氟化物以两种方式保护牙齿:首先,它能够杀死龋齿元凶-造酸细菌;另外,它还可以固化、修复被酸软化的牙釉质。

So far as we know, the only drawback to using toothpaste is that it makes drinking orange juice after brushing a pretty unpleasant taste experience. But that’s a small price to pay for healthy teeth.

据我们所知,使用牙膏的唯一缺点在于:它使人们刷牙后饮用橙汁成为一种相当不悦的味觉体验。但这只是为牙齿健康付出的一点小小代价。


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